Published examples

Compilation of enzyme-modifier mechanisms

Although all 17 basic kinetic mechanisms by which enzymes interact with their modifiers have been amply documented in the literature, recognizing their identity is not always straightforward. The reasons span between inconsistent nomenclature, dissimilar mechanisms pooled under the same name (with noncompetitive inhibition leading the inventory), to missing documentation.
The 17 + 1 pages of this section present, in tabular form and random order, a compilation of published results of enzyme inhibition and activation. This compilation is neither a database, nor the lists are intended to cover all published results, an unmanageable task. Updates may follow by appending new, representative examples to those already existing. Following the presentation of examples of the 17 basic modifier mechanisms, a handy, searchable table (LIST OF ALL EXAMPLES) will summarize all items.
Independently of nomenclature, all papers featured in this section provided sufficient documentation and sound experimental evidence for assigning kinetic mechanisms without ambiguity. When their identity could not be understood at a glance, data presented in graphical or tabular form were elaborated with the methods described in the section Data analysis of this website to reveal the nature of the underlying interactions between enzymes and their modifiers.
Each example, in one row, shows the following information in seven columns:

  1. Progressive number of the entries for internal cross reference
  2. Enzyme names as recommended by the International Union of  Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) and BRENDA, followed by the name of the organism as Genus species
  3. EC-number
  4. Name of the modifier
  5. Name of the substrate, always the varied substrate to which inhibition or activation refers
  6. Name of the mechanism as specified in the original reference
  7. Reference as first author and publication year

Comments are shown below the tables, followed by the references in alphabetical order and numbered for practical reasons. All references are linked to PubMed, where in many cases full text links (often free)  are provided. The structural formulas of some modifiers and substrates are provided. 



Access the examples either from the menu bar or by clicking the acronyms in the following table

1LSpILinear specific inhibition
2LCaILinear catalytic inhibition
3LMx(Sp>Ca)ILinear mixed, predominantly specific inhibition
4LMx(Sp<Ca)ILinear mixed, predominantly catalytic inhibition
5LMx(Sp=Ca)ILinear mixed, balanced inhibition
6HSpIHyperbolic specific inhibition
7HCaIHyperbolic catalytic inhibition
8HMx(Sp>Ca)IHyperbolic mixed, predominantly specific inhibition
9HMx(Sp<Ca)IHyperbolic mixed, predominantly catalyic inhibition
10HMx(Sp=Ca)IHyperbolic mixed, balanced inhibition
11HMxD(I/A)Hyperbolic mixed, dual modification (inhibition→activation)
12HCaAHyperbolic catalytic activation
13HMx(Sp>Ca)AHyperbolic mixed, predominantly specific activation
14HMxD(A/I)Hyperbolic mixed, dual modification (activation→inhibition)
15HSpAHyperbolic specific activation
16HMx(Sp<Ca)AHyperbolic mixed, predominantly catalytic activation
17HMx(Sp=Ca)AHyperbolic mixed, balanced activation